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Les méthodes de diagnostic des trypanosomiases animales africaines : avantages, limites et nouvelles pistes d’amélioration

Abstract : The animal trypanosomiases of African origin are a rather typical example of a neglected tropical disease. They are caused by blood parasites of the Trypanosoma genus transmitted by haematophagous insects, cyclically by tsetse flies for Trypanosoma congolense, T. vivax and T. brucei brucei, which cause nagana, mechanically by T. evansi, the agent of surra, and finally by T. equiperdum, adapted to sexual transmission, which causes dourine. Nagana affects 38 African countries in the sub-Saharan region with 55 million cattle at risk, not counting small ruminants. These diseases deteriorate the animal’s physical condition, leading to a sharp drop in productivity; in the most severe cases, and in the absence of treatment, the animal dies within a few weeks. The socio-economic impact is estimated at US$ 4.75 billion in annual losses, making these diseases one of the major obstacles to livestock development in Africa. The control of these diseases is hampered by the lack of vaccines, a handful of molecules for treatment against which parasites are increasingly developing resistance, and finally, molecular or serological diagnostics whose robustness needs to be greatly improved. Clinical signs are not specific, parasitological diagnosis is often not very sensitive, and molecular methods are not applicable in the field. Immunodiagnostic methods in the form of rapid diagnostic tests are the only ones suitable for the field, but the few existing tests are poorly available and lack specificity and/or sensitivity. Here we address the advantages and limitations of current diagnostic methods and propose new ways of improving them for better disease control.
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https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03225173
Contributor : Magamba Tounkara <>
Submitted on : Wednesday, May 12, 2021 - 1:00:49 PM
Last modification on : Tuesday, May 18, 2021 - 6:02:53 PM

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Magamba Tounkara, Alain Boulangé, Frédéric Bringaud, Magali Thonnus, Adrien Marie Gaston Belem, et al.. Les méthodes de diagnostic des trypanosomiases animales africaines : avantages, limites et nouvelles pistes d’amélioration. Bulletin de l'Association des Anciens Elèves de l'Institut Pasteur, Association des anciens élèves de l'Institut Pasteur, 2021, 63 (242), pp.31-38. ⟨hal-03225173⟩

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