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Changements dans l'occupation du sol et l'aménagement des paysages du Mont-Liban du Néolithique aux époques historiques

Abstract : The French-Lebanese Nahr Ibrahim Project was undertaken on the valley of this major river in Mount Lebanon. It aims to characterize the environmental impacts on forests, soils and water resources of landscape terracing (a typical feature of Mount Lebanon), and of settlement patterns in the Holocene. The definition of transitional periods and the timescales of changes are examined through archaeological and historical data, 14C datings, geology and soil science (paleosols), paleobotany (anthracology, carpology, phytholits), anthropology and ancient photographs (due to the Jesuit Fathers in the beginnings of the XX c.). The study of the Nahr Ibrahim watershed is linked to a multiscalar approach of the territory lying between Nahr el-Kelb toward south and Nahr ej-Jaouz toward north in order to map the variations in land-use. The present paper focuses on the strengths and weaknesses of the archaeological data base to achieve this mapping. We then expose the main aspects of the study of a four meters polygenetic soil profile in regard to the first records from a recent excavation on the most ancient sedentary settlement known in the mountain. The integrative approach brings into light the environmental answers to the exploitation of natural resources and in return the adaptation of societies to these variations in the second half of the Holocene, from the forest clearing around 6000 BP up to recent landscape and socio-economical changes.
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Romana Harfouche, Pierre Poupet, Chadi Abdallah, Linda Herveux, Corine Yazbeck, et al.. Changements dans l'occupation du sol et l'aménagement des paysages du Mont-Liban du Néolithique aux époques historiques. Méditerranée, Presses universitaires de Provence, 2020, Liban, 131, ⟨10.4000/mediterranee.11358⟩. ⟨hal-02869735⟩



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